On the first day of the NATO Summit in Madrid, alliance leaders sent a strong message to Russia, calling the country a (quote) "direct threat."
"It makes clear that Russia poses the most significant and direct threat to our security."
The leaders condemned Moscow's cruelty in Ukraine.
They also vowed to provide long-term support for war-torn Ukraine.
NATO's statement came as part of its new strategic concept, which was unveiled Wednesday.
For the first time, a NATO strategic document entails the challenges posed by China toward NATO's security, interests and values.
"We now face an era of strategic competition. We see a deepening strategic partnership between Moscow and Beijing and China's growing assertiveness and its coercive policies have consequences for the security of (NATO) allies and partners."
The NATO chief also added that Beijing is not an adversary, but a serious challenge.
While previous strategic documents had directed harsh language against Russia, China had never been mentioned before.
Nevertheless, the official turn by NATO comes as the U.S. is increasingly on guard against Beijing.
Meanwhile, during the summit, U.S. President Joe Biden announced that Washington is bolstering its military presence in Europe to respond to what he called a changed security environment.
This, he said includes establishing a permanent presence in Poland.
Hailing it an historic event, the alliance leaders also welcomed the invitation for Sweden and Finland to join the NATO.
Kim Hyo-sun, Arirang News.